At the oars were two brothers, tenants of Smith's who reluctantly rowed the boat six miles on the river to the sloop. In that respect, André’s death truly is unfortunate. Arnold met André on the shore near Haverstraw, NY and they went back to Smith’s house, behind American lines, to talk. John Andre was born in London in 1750 to French Protestant (Huguenot) parents. [26] In 1879 a monument was unveiled on the place of his execution at Tappan. The principal guard officer, who was constantly in the room with the prisoner, relates that when the hour of execution was announced to him in the morning, he received it without emotion, and while all present were affected with silent gloom, he retained a firm countenance, with calmness and composure of mind. [11] André testified at his trial that the men searched his boots for the purpose of robbing him. Instantly recovering his composure, he said, "I am reconciled to my death, but I detest the mode." To aid André's escape through U.S. lines, Arnold provided him with civilian clothes and a passport which allowed him to travel under the name John Anderson. In December 1776, he was freed in a prisoner exchange. Meanwhile, Arnold received the letter, and just missing having breakfast with Washington, who had not gotten his letter yet, fled for the Vulture and British safety. None of these men knew Arnold's purpose or suspected his treason; all were told that the purpose was to do good for the patriot cause. While a prisoner, he endeared himself to American officers who lamented his death as much as the British. If  André was disguised to look like a spy, he would be captured as a spy. He was mourned even by his enemies. André asked whether Tallmadge thought the situations similar; he replied, "Yes, precisely similar, and similar shall be your fate," referring to Hale having been hanged by the British as a spy.[14]. He was then caught by three American freelance soldiers just a few miles from British-held New York City, New York. On the morning of 22 September, the two American patriots, Peterson and Sherwood launched a two-hour cannonade on the Vulture, which sustained many hits and was forced to retire down river. Andre was later captured, convicted, and hanged as a spy. André told the court that he had neither desired nor planned to be behind American lines. Not a murmur or a sigh ever escaped him, and the civilities and attentions bestowed on him were politely acknowledged. The men, finding the papers from Arnold on him, took André to North Castle, where Lt. Col. Jameson was in command. I was so near during the solemn march to the fatal spot, as to observe every movement, and participate in every emotion which the melancholy scene was calculated to produce. Photo, Print, Drawing [John Andre, 1751-1780, the death warrant of Major Andre] [ digital file from b&w film copy neg. ] Andre was arrested and hanged as a spy in New York on 2nd October 1780 and buried there. Extracted from A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, From 1775 to 1783 Source: John André 1193314 An Account of Andre's Death James Thatcher André wanted to know how he would be treated by Washington. André then told them that he was a British officer who must not be detained, when, to his surprise, they said that they were Continentals, and that he was their prisoner. The Unfortunate Death of Major André. William Hamilton (1751-1801) delin, John Goldar (1729-1795) sculp. It was not until the night of the 21st, that André was picked up by Joshua Smith and taken to meet with Arnold. I purchased this book to find out more information on Andre’s participation in the Ft. St. John siege and aftermath. Would you like to receive our monthly email newsletter? He was fluent in English, French, German, and Italian. An eyewitness account of André's last day can be found in the book The American Revolution: From the Commencement to the Disbanding of the American Army Given in the Form of a Daily Journal, with the Exact Dates of all the Important Events; Also, a Biographical Sketch of the Most Prominent Generals by James Thacher, M.D., a surgeon in the American Revolutionary Army: October 2d.-- Major André is no more among the living. Major André walked from the stone house, in which he had been confined, between two of our subaltern officers, arm in arm; the eyes of the immense multitude were fixed on him, who, rising superior to the fears of death, appeared as if conscious of the dignified deportment which he displayed. On 29 September 1780, the board found André guilty of being behind American lines "under a feigned name and in a disguised habit" and ordered that "Major André, Adjutant-General to the British Army, ought to be considered as a Spy from the enemy, and that agreeable to the law and usage of nations, it is their opinion, he ought to suffer death. For more Turn videos: http://goo.gl/3cTVYC. John was born on September 30, 1974 at Doylestown Hospital in Doylestown, PA and was currently living in Schenectady, NY. Arnold's Loyalist wife Peggy Shippen was one of the go-betweens in the correspondence. André could not give up his disguise, because all of his negotiations had been in secret. He offered intelligence showing that a high-ranking officer was planning to defect to the British but was unaware of who it was. He was 45. For John André his fate was fixed to the traitor Benedict Arnold who escaped into British hands, leaving Andre to die. Lafayette is a member of the court. Henry Clinton Papers. They both believed that André would not see any more Americans past this point and that he would safely make it to the British lines. André wore his uniform so that he would not be taken for a spy. In April of that year, he took charge of British Secret Service in America. General Greene is president of the courts-martial trial for captured spy, Major John André. André was held prisoner. John R. Andre III died suddenly at home on June 19, 2020 of a seizure. John André (2 May 1751[1][unreliable source?] If anyone in the countryside had realized he was British they would have reported him. Among these guests was a significant figure: Major John Andre. John Andre kept a journal from his experiences in America. In 1779, André became Adjutant General of the British Army in America with the rank of Major. A major in the British army, he was held in esteem as an officer and a … Tallmadge had been a classmate of Nathan Hale while both were at Yale, and he described the capture of Hale. At the time, Andre was an up-and-coming figure in the British forces, under the command of General William Howe. The British believed that the Americans would not dare to execute a British Adjunct General. Born on 2nd May 1750, he was captured following a meeting with Benedict Arnold. His mother died in Bath on 22nd February 1813 aged 91. Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander in New York, did all that he could to save André, his favourite aide, but refused to surrender Arnold in exchange for him, even though he personally despised Arnold. The presence of the warship was discovered by two American privates, John Peterson and Moses Sherwood the following morning on September 21. Some hours later, Washington received the explanatory information from Maj. Tallmadge and immediately sent men to arrest Arnold, but it was too late. The 1798 play André, based on Major André's execution, is one of the earliest examples of American tragedy. September 30, 1780 . While they were gone, a small boat furnished by Arnold was steered to the Vulture by Joshua Hett Smith. The Death of John André John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780. At this point Benjamin Tallmadge returned to North Castle from scouting and, being very suspicious of these goings-on, sent a letter with the found papers to Washington . Colonel Scammel now informed him that he had an opportunity to speak, if he desired it; he raised the handkerchief from his eyes, and said, "I pray you to bear me witness that I meet my fate like a brave man." Full online access to this resource is only available at the Library of Congress. 2, 1780) was a British intelligence officer during the American Revolution. Alexander Hamilton wrote of him: "Never perhaps did any man suffer death with more justice, or deserve it less." He planned the Mischianza when General Howe, Clinton's precursor, resigned and was about to return to England. Major Andre is no more among the living. Mary Ha… – 2 October 1780) was a major in the British Army and head of its Secret Service in America during the American Revolutionary War. He also asserted that, as a prisoner of war, he had the right to escape in civilian clothes. On the day of his capture, James Rivington published André's poem "The Cow Chase" in his gazette in New York. Grey's descendants returned Franklin's portrait to the United States in 1906, the bicentennial of Franklin's birth. John Andre’s body hung in silence for thirty minutes before being taken down. See the Letter:  John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780, HOURS FOR RESEARCHERS  André appealed to George Washington to be executed as a gentleman by being shot rather than hanged as a "common criminal", but by the rules of war he was hanged as a spy at Tappan, New York on 2 October 1780. Not easy to arrange, Arnold demanded a personal meeting with André. It was a tragical scene of the deepest interest. Please see our full announcement here. André rode on in safety until 9 a.m. on 23 September, when he came near Tarrytown, New York,[clarification needed] where armed militiamen John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart, and David Williams stopped him.[9][10]. He was hanged as a spy by the Continental Army for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York, to the British. It consists of a sarcophagus with the figure of a mourning Britannia (the female personification of Britain) and a sad-looking lion on top. A Spy for a Spy: John Andre Hanged On Oct. 2, 1780, British intelligence officer John Andre met his awful fate with courage, much as his American counterpart Nathan Hale met his four years earlier. On this day in history, September 29, 1780, British spy Major John Andre is sentenced to death by hanging for his role in the Benedict Arnold treason affair. Everyone believed that Arnold should have been the one to die because of his treason and that André just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. The note gave Arnold time to escape to the British. "The lower party," replied André, meaning the British. asked one of the men. The wagon being now removed from under him, he was suspended, and instantly expired; it proved indeed "but a momentary pang." However, I was struck by the deep and controlling relationship between Andre and his mother as well as the 1770 love triangle that caused the family considerable embarrassment. His records on the British perspectives during some of the battles in which he fought has been considered a very reliable resource for historians. Mixed method, 1783. He therefore insisted on sending a note to Arnold informing him of the entire situation. John Andre was left holding the bag, to the dismay of just about everyone American and British alike. However, he did not attempt to pass the blame onto Arnold. He was 45. John R. Andre III died suddenly at home on June 19, 2020 of a seizure. British spy, Major John Andre, is sentenced to death . His father was a merchant, residing in later life at Clapton, London; he died there on 14th April 1769 aged 52 and was buried in the family vault in St Augustine's churchyard, Hackney. An hour or so later, Washington arrived at West Point with his party and was disturbed to see the stronghold's fortifications in such neglect, part of the plan to weaken West Point's defenses. This was unnecessary, since Clinton already knew the fort's layout. British Major John André was one of the most famous prisoners of the Revolutionary War. Death: 2 Oct 1780 (aged 30) ... John Andre met with General Arnold, and obtained maps and other documents about the American forces, to carry to General Clinton. until further notice, 909 S. University Ave. Something he had wanted to avoid from the very beginning. John Andre -- handsome, artistic, beloved by the Loyalists, admired by Washington... a spy brave and cunning... convinced Benedict Arnold to sell out West Point... hanged at age 31. Jameson did not want his army career to be wrecked later for having wrongly believed that his general was a traitor. Publication date 1916 Topics André, John, 1751-1780 Publisher New York : Printed for C.F. an account written about John André hanging as a spy in October 1780. It was a tragical scene of the deepest interest. Major John André (May 2, 1750 – October 2, 1780) was a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold 's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. General Washington convened a board of senior officers to investigate the matter. In the poem, André muses on his foiling of a foraging expedition in Bergen across the Hudson from the city. Heartman Collection cdl; americana Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor University of California Libraries The trial contrasted with Sir William Howe's treatment of Hale some four years earlier. [23] In 1804 a memorial plaque by Charles Regnart was erected in the Grosvenor Chapel in London, to John's memory. The Clements Library is open by appointment only for U-M faculty, students, and staff. John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780, Next Story: Ann Bates [Undated/Unsigned Manuscript regarding Ann Bates]. [citation needed] Joshua Hett Smith, who was accompanying him, left him just before he was captured. "Gentlemen," he said, "I hope you belong to our party." Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190. This would expose André to all of the hazards of ordinary secret agents. John Andre was born into a wealthy Swiss family in London in 1750. [26], The names of André's captors were John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wert. Clinton and André did not want this to happen. He may have thought the men to be loyalists at first and then realized his mistake too late. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. John Andre was captured by the Continental Army on suspicion of espionage. At the moment, therefore, when suddenly he came in view of the gallows, he involuntarily started backward, and made a pause. By the next year (1780), he had briefly taken part in Clinton's invasion of the South, starting with the siege of Charleston, South Carolina. The fatal hour having arrived, a large detachment of troops was paraded, and an immense concourse of people assembled; almost all our general and field officers, excepting his excellency and staff, were present on horseback; melancholy and gloom pervaded all ranks, and the scene was affectingly awful. "Why this emotion, sir?" André was an important general to the British and the loss of him was felt strongly. John had one brother, William Louis, and three sisters. I have just witnessed his exit. They picked up André and placed him on shore. By morning the meeting was over, but the Vulture had moved up river, having been fired upon by the Americans. In April 1779 John André was placed in charge of the British Secret Intelligence. What is interesting about the story of John Andre is that he didn’t die in battle; he was actually hanged as a spy by the Americans when he tried to gain their surrender at West Point, New York. The Colquhon brothers who were commanded by Benedict Arnold to bring André from the sloop-of-war Vulture to shore, as well as Major Keirs, under whose supervision the boat was obtained, were exonerated from all suspicion. On September 20th, André went on board the Vulture, a British sloop in the Hudson off Teller’s Point, to await for an American ship to pick him up and take him to Sheldon’s Headquarters. • An Authentic Narrative of the Causes Which Led to the Death of Major Andre, Adjutant-General of His Majesty's Forces in North America, Joshua Hett Smith (London 1808) Joshua Hett Smith, who was connected with André with the attempted treason, was also brought to trial at the Reformed Church of Tappan. John André, (born May 2, 1750, London, England—died October 2, 1780, Tappan, New York, U.S.), British army officer who negotiated with the American general Benedict Arnold and was executed as a spy during the American Revolution (1775–83). British spy John André is court-martialed, found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging on September 29, 1780. [28], British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War, Head of British Secret Service in America, NOTE: The capture occurred in the area of present day, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851, Rupert Gunnis, Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War, "Pounds Sterling to Dollars: Historical Conversion of Currency", "Commemorating the Defense of Teller's Point", Local History: British Agent Detained in Tarrytown, Executed in Rockland, "Benedict Arnold, John André, and His Three Yeoman Captors: A Sentimental Journey or American Virtue Defined", "The Capture of Major John André" by A.C. Warren (1856), Letters from André, including coded interchange between André and Arnold, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_André&oldid=1000142021, 18th-century executions by the United States, 18th-century executions by New York (state), British Army personnel of the American Revolutionary War, British military personnel killed in the American Revolutionary War, British spies during the American Revolution, Huguenot participants in the American Revolution, People executed by the United States military by hanging, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles using NRISref without a reference number, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2019, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "He was more unfortunate than criminal." John Andre was a polyglot charmer, a handsome bachelor who by the time he was executed was only 30. A pension was awarded by the British to his mother and three sisters not long after his death, and his brother William André was made a baronet in his honour in 1781 (see André baronets). The Unfortunate Death of Major Andre (Adjutant General of the English Army) at Head Quarters in New York, Octr. Andretti was Aldo Andretti’s son and Mario Andretti’s nephew. John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780. said an officer by his side. For Andre died on the gallows as a spy, though he probably would … Andre was imprisoned at Tappan, New York, and on September 29, 1780, he was found guilty of being behind American lines "under a feigned name and in a disguised habit." He asked André to go to Sheldon’s Headquarters at Lower Salem, disguised as “John Anderson,” an American agent. When Washington read the letter, he asked for the Court of Inquiry to study the incident and decide whether André was acting as a spy. Become a Clements Library Associate by making a donation today. Major John Andre’s memorial in Westminster Abbey was erected in 1782. He was a great favorite in colonial society, both in Philadelphia and New York, during those cities' occupation by the British Army. There, as the verdict was decided that André was acting as a spy by going behind enemy lines and disguising his uniform, he wrote a courageous letter, dated September 29, 1780, to his Commander, General Henry Clinton. [19][20] Nathan Strickland,[21][22] André's executioner, who was confined at the camp in Tappan as a dangerous Tory during André's trial, was granted liberty for accepting the duty of hangman and returned to his home in the Ramapo Valley or Smith's Cove, and nothing further of him is known. The brothers finally agreed to row after threats by Arnold to arrest them. The Americans wanted to trade, but the British would not do it, knowing what would happen to Arnold. [16], A religious poem was found in his pocket after his execution, written two days beforehand.[17]. The guard detail then withdrew and the “country people” of the villages around Tappan respectfully filed past his corpse. John Andre was a British Army Officer who fought and died in the American Revolutionary War. The trial lasted four weeks and ended in acquittal for lack of evidence. It was his earnest desire to be shot, as being the mode of death most conformable to the feelings of a military man, and he had indulged the hope that his request would be granted. Washington was further irritated to find that Arnold had breached protocol by not being about to greet him. Jameson sent General George Washington the six sheets of paper carried by André, but he was unwilling to believe that Benedict Arnold could be guilty of treason. André was not happy with these circumstances, and when it was decided that Smith would help lead André toward the British, André began to see himself as a prisoner and decided it was best for him to change out of his uniform and be disguised for the trip. John Andrewas executed by hanging on October 2, 1780, at the age of 30. "[15], Glover was officer of the day at André's execution. He bore six papers hidden in his stocking, written in Arnold's hand, that showed the British how to take the fort. The fate of Major André : a letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Laurens by Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804; Laurens, John, 1754-1782. John attended Our Lady of Mount Carmel School in Doylestown and then graduated from Dubois High School in Dubois, WY, class of 1993. Thirty-year-old British Major John Andre is hanged as a spy by U.S. military forces in Tappan, New York, on October 2, 1780. Some militia men there was a prolific writer who carried on much of General William Howe ]! 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