Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. Countries in the Middle East; Countries in North America; Countries in Oceania; Countries in South America; See Also Receive E-mail Updates Enter your e-mail address: World Photo Quiz Test your knowledge of world trivia and current affairs. The region served as the intellectual and economic center of the Roman Empire and played an exceptionally important role due to its periphery on the Sassanid Empire. Next map: Middle East 2005 . Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ) has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprising the same meaning as the term "Middle East" in North American and Western European usage. [41] Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). Its territory also encompasses the Sinai Peninsula, which shares borders with Israel and Palestine. In 1961, Cyprus became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations after gaining its independence from Great Britain, and in 2004 it was accepted as a member of the European Union. However, it would be the later Islamic Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Islamic conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic Arab ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. … This hasn’t always been the case. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labour Organization, was 13.2%,[44] and among youth is as high as 25%,[45] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria. Jordan is considered one of the most politically stable countries in the Middle East. [21], There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. [52][53][54] Sharp global temperature and sea level changes, shifting precipitation patterns and increased frequency of extreme weather events are some of the main impacts of climate change as identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). George Washington's 1796 Farewell Address is an amazingly prescient warning to the U.S. to avoid certain dangers with regard to foreign policy. The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia (Iraq, Kuwait, and eastern Syria), and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics. In 1961, Cyprus became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations after gaining its independence from Great Britain, and in 2004 it was accepted as a member of the European Union. These countries are located primarily in Western Asia, Egypt is in North Africa, and a part of Turkey lies in Southeast Europe. The country covers an area of 168,754 square miles and has a total population of 37.2 million. Middle East, the lands around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, encompassing at least the Arabian Peninsula and, by some definitions, Iran, North Africa, and sometimes beyond. For now, let's focus on Bahrain, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates. The economy of Yemen, like many other Even in more liberal Middle Eastern countries like the United Arab Emirates, it’s illegal under Islamic law for unmarried couples to live together or share a hotel room. The Middle East occupies an area of about 2,782,860 sq miles with a population of over 371 million people. The search for agricultural lands by agriculturalists, and pastoral lands by herdsmen meant different migrations took place within the region and shaped its ethnic and demographic makeup. Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar and UAE). [48] These emissions are mostly from the energy sector,[49] an integral component of many Middle Eastern and North African economies due to the extensive oil and natural gas reserves that are found within the region. 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